Balloon Payment Mortgage
A mortgage where payments are calculated on the basis of a long-term pay-back period, but which requires the unpaid principal balance to be paid in a lump sum at a specified time that is shorter than the term for calculating payments, i.e. a loan could be based on a 30-year amortization schedule, but require a balloon payment of the unpaid balance at the end of the fifth year.
When the interest rate is reduced for a specified period of time by depositing a sum of money with the lender. The borrower's mortgage payment during the "buy down" period is less than the payment that would be due under the terms of the mortgage. The lender offsets the deficit by drawing funds from the "buy down" fund in an amount equal to the difference between the borrower's payment and the payment called for in the mortgage.
A fee collected by some lenders at the time a mortgage commitment is accepted by the borrower. Normally, this fee is non-refundable, but may be credited towards the "points" due at time of settlement.
A mortgage that is not insured or guaranteed by any federal or state agency.
A report ordered by a lender from a credit reporting bureau that will disclose a borrower's payment history of existing credit accounts. The report is used to help evaluate a lender's risk in extending credit to an applicant.
Deed of Trust
A legal document whereby a borrower conveys the title of a property to trustees designated by the lender to secure the repayment of the money loaned.
Failure of a buyer to comply with all the terms and conditions of the loan document, thereby giving the lender the right to call the loan due.
A sum of money, commonly referred to as points, paid to a lender for the purpose of securing a preferred interest rate for the term of the loan. Each point equals 1% of the loan amount.
Due on Sale Clause
Also called an alienation clause, this requires that a mortgage be paid in full prior to maturity if the title of the property is transferred without the lender's consent.
Fixed Rate Mortgage
A mortgage with an interest rate fixed for the entire term of the loan.
A mortgage in which repayment is guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration by virtue of its commitment to the lender.
Floating a Rate
A process in which the lender does not set the interest at the time of loan application, but lets it float in anticipation that the rate will go down prior to closing. The borrower then gets the benefit of the lower rate if rates do go down; however, if rates go up, then the borrower would pay the higher rate.
Legal action taken by a lender after a default to recoup the unpaid principal due on the mortgage, the accrued interest and all costs associated with the collection process.
A fee charged by a lender when a mortgage payment is not received within a stipulated period of time. Generally, a payment is considered late if it is not received within 15 days of the due date.
Locked in Rate
A lender's guarantee of a specific interest rate for a borrower. Whether the rate is locked in at time of application, loan commitment or just prior to closing is subject to negotiation.
A legal document whereby a borrower conveys the title of a property to the lender to secure the repayment of the money loaned.
The written promise of a borrower to pay a named lender a definite sum of money at an agreed interest rate over a stipulated period of time.
A fee charged by a lender to cover the cost of processing a loan application, generally 1% of the loan amount.
An abbreviation for a monthly mortgage payment. PI refers to the principal and interest portion of the payment. TI refers to taxes and insurance payments placed in escrow accounts.
A fee paid to a lender in order to "buy" an interest rate. Each point is equal to 1% of the loan amount. The total charge will vary according to the type of loan and interest rate charged.
Payment of the principal balance in whole or in part prior to the maturity date agreed to in a mortgage.
A defaulting borrower's right to make up the missed payments, including late charges, and reinstate the balance of the payment schedule.
A written acknowledgement by a lender that the debt has been paid off. If the debt is secured by a mortgage or deed of trust that has been recorded in the land records, then the release also must be recorded to clear the title to the property.
Seller Take Back
A situation in which the seller of a property agrees to take back, or hold a mortgage for all our any part of the buyers' financing needs.
The lender's disclosure of the total cost of a loan if it lasts its full term. Part of this — APR Annual Percentage Rate — shows the costs as an Annualized Interest Rate that exceeds the agreed rate. The rate includes the note rate plus prepaid finance charges — origination fee, points, mortgage insurance premium — paid in advance by the borrower.
The final step in the loan process. At this stage, all the information gathered as part of the application process — appraised value of property, condition of property, credit history, income and debts of applicant — is analyzed to determine if the property and applicant meet the lender's criteria for a firm loan commitment.
A mortgage where repayment is guaranteed by the Veterans' Administration. Only qualified veterans are eligible for this type of loan.
A hybrid loan where the borrower assumes an existing mortgage and also borrows additional funds, all in the format of a single new mortgage. The lender collects monthly payments which it then applies to the total loan, including payments on the assumed mortgage.
Adjustable Rate Terms
Adjustable rate mortgages have additional terms which must be understood to make an accurate comparison of the numerous adjustable programs available today. Important terminology includes:
The interest rate charged by the lender is subject to adjustment throughout the term of the loan.
The interval of time between interest rate adjustments; for a 1 year ARM, the adjustment period is every 12 months.
A limit on how much the interest rate can increase or decrease on any adjustment date or over the life of the loan.
A provision in some ARM loans that allows the borrower to convert from an adjustable to a fixed rate of interest for the balance of the loan term.
A financial standard that acts as the basis for establishing the periodic interest rate adjustments called for in the loan documents, i.e. 52-week Treasury bill index rates applicable to certificates auctioned by the U.S. Government having a maturity of one year.
The rate of interest added to the index rate to determine what the adjusted interest rate should be on the date specified for the rate change.
When the monthly payment agreed to by the borrower and lender is not sufficient to cover the cost of principal and interest, the amount of the monthly deficit is added to the unpaid principal balance, thereby causing the principal to exceed the amount originally borrowed.